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Terms Reference

Reference articles on a wide range of topics.

What is the Average Cost of Carbon Black per pound? Average Carbon Black Price +  

Carbon black is pure carbon produced by the incomplete combustion of products that contain large amounts of petroleum such as coal tar and ethylene cracking tar. The main use of carbon black is in the industry of automobile tires, as a pigment. In Europe, carbon black of vegetable origin is used as a food coloring. The current production of carbon black is 18 billion pounds per year, from which 90% it is used in rubber applications. The average price of carbon black is $700/ton

What is the Average Cost of Propylene Oxide? Average Propylene Oxide Price +  

Propylene oxide is a volatile, colorless liquid, being industrially produced. It was used for the first time as a racing fuel, but the usage was prohibited because of safety reasons. The process of producing propylene oxide starts with propylene that involves hydro chlorination and oxidation. It is a chemical intermediate used in industrial and commercial products. Being a highly reactive chemical it is also used to produce other chemicals such as propylene glycol, propylene glycol ethers and polyglycol ethers. The average price of propylene oxide is $150/ton.

What is the Average Cost of Cumene per pound? Average Cumene Price +  

Cumene is a very flammable, colorless liquid , insoluble in water, that has a very strong odor, similar to gasoline odor. It can be found in crude oil and refined gasoline. It is mainly used to produce acetone and phenol. The market of cumene registered a tough period being sold for an average price of $61-62 cents/lb. Pure cumene produced on an industrial scale is used to produce cumene hydroperoxide. It can be found in the composition of many cleaning home products.

What is the Average Cost of Toluene? Average Toluene Price +  

Toluene is a colorless liquid, insoluble in water with an odor very similar to the one found in paint thinners. The name of the substance derives from the word “toluol” which refers to an aromatic extract from which it was first obtained. Toluene was first described and named by Jacob Berzelius. Toluene is mainly used as a solvent for dissolving paints, rubber, glues and silicone sealants. It is also used in the fabrication of benzene and xylenes. It is dangerous if it comes into contact with eyes or skin and is irritating for the lungs. The average price of toluene is $2,80s/gal.

What is the Average Cost of Hydrochloric Acid? Average Hydrochloric Acid Price +  

Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless liquid, releasing in air hydrochloric acid fumes, with a pungent, characteristic odor. Hydrochloric acid is known as the spirits of salt, muriatic acid or hard water. It is found in its natural state, but only in very small amounts. It is found in volcanic emanations and in gastric acid helping to kill bacteria that causes gastrointestinal tract disorders. It is mainly used in industrial processes. The average price of hydrochloric acid is $100/MT.

What is the Average Cost of Terephthalic Acid? Average Terephthalic Acid Price +  

Terephthalic acid is a white crystalline powder being used as the precursor of polyester, used in the manufacture of bottles and clothing. It is produced by the oxidation of oxygen and p-xylene in air. It also can be obtained in the laboratory by the oxidation of some benzene derivates. It is used in the manufacture of PET all over the world, the demand exceeding thirty million tones in 2006. The average price of terephthalic acid is 48 cents/lb.

What is the Average Cost of Formaldehyde per pound? Average Formaldehyde Price +  

Formaldehyde is primarily a gas with a pungent, irritating odor. Formaldehyde is soluble in water and in many solvents. Formaldehyde may derive from the combustion of methane or other compounds rich in carbon such as fossil fuels, wood, tobacco. It is formed naturally in atmosphere, through methane oxidation under the action of solar radiation. Small amounts of formaldehyde are generated from metabolic processes, both in plants and animals. It was first identified in 1867 by August von Hofmann. It is mainly used in the production of resins.

What is the Average Cost of Xylene? Average Xylene Price +  

Xylene is a very flammable, colorless liquid, with a sweet odor. It is obtained during the process called alkylation, when xylene is refined from crude oil. Naturally it occurs in coal tar and petroleum, being formed during forest fires. It is mainly used in the leather industry, and as a solvent in the rubber industry. It is also found in the composition of many cleaning products, in paints and varnishes. Xylene can affect the brain, when exposure occurs. The average price of xylene is $750/MT

What is the Average Cost of Methanol? Average Methanol Price +  

Methanol is the simplest alcohol concerning the structure, easily flammable, colorless and toxic. It can be recognized due to a softer and more "sweet" odor than that of ethanol. It is frequently used as a solvent, denatured ethanol, fuel or antifreeze. Methanol intoxication is manifested initially by central nervous system depression, headaches, dizziness, nausea, loss of balance, confusion, and at higher doses unconsciousness and death. The first use of methanol dates from 1661 when it was obtained by Robert Boyle. The average price of methanol is $426/MT.

What is the Average Cost of Ethylene Dichloride per tonne? Average Ethylene Dichloride Price +  

Etylene dichloride is a chemical compound mainly used in the fabrication of vinyl chloride monomer, that is then used in the manufacture of PVC. It is a flammable, colorless liquid that has a chloroform-like odor. When it burns, it eliminates toxic fumes and the inhalation of the vapors must be avoided, as also the contact with skin and eyes. Ethylene dichloride was first produced in 1794 by the Society of Dutch Chemists, from olefiant gas and chlorine gas. The average cost of Ethylene dichloride is $460/MT

What is the Average Cost of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether? Average Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether Price +  

Methyl Tert -Butyl Ether (MTBE) is produced by chemical synthesis from methanol and isobutylene and it is used to raise the octane of unleaded petrol. MTBE is volatile at normal temperature, colorless and highly soluble in water. It is detectable through smell and taste in concentrations between 20 and 40 ppb. MTBE can contaminate both surface and groundwater by fuel leaks from underground tanks, pipelines, refineries and gasoline stations. The average price of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether is 240 cents per gallon.

What is the Average Cost of MTBE? Average MTBE Price +  

MTBE is a chemical compound from the group of chemicals known as fuel oxygenates. It is used in USA, in gasoline in order to reduce carbon monoxide caused by auto emissions. It is a colorless liquid, insoluble in water, easily flammable and volatile. It is used as a solvent in organic chemistry, and in medicine to dissolve gallstones. It is made synthetically through the chemical reaction of isobutylene and methanol. The average cost of MTBE is 240cents/gallon.

What is the Average Cost of Aluminum Sulfate per ton? Average Aluminum Sulfate Price +  

Other names for aluminum sulfate are cake alum, filter alum or pearl alum. It can be found as an odorless white crystals or powder. It is used as an agent in the purification of water and in paper manufacturing. It is also used in the construction industry as an agent resistant to water and as an agent in the fire fighting foam. Some uses also include dyeing and printing textiles, reducing the ph of garden soil, reducing pain caused by bites and stings. The average price of aluminum sulfate is $425/ton.

What is the Average Cost of Butyraldehyde per pound? Average Butyraldehyde Price +  

Butyraldehyde is a very flammable and colorless liquid, with a strong odor, that is mainly used in the manufacture of resins. It is an organic compound being known also as butanal. It boils at 75.7celsius degrees; it is insoluble in water but soluble in ether or alcohol. It is used for the fabrication of polyvinylbutyral, known to be used in the manufacture of varnishes, enamels and laminated glass. A quantity of 500 ml of Butyraldehyde can be bought for $35.

What is the Average Cost of Nitrobenzene? Average Nitrobenzene Price +  

Nitrobenzene is a yellow liquid, with an oily aspect and an almond- like odor. It is an industrial chemical being very toxic in large quantities and used mainly in industry to fabricate a chemical named aniline. It is not soluble in water but will evaporate to air. It is used but in small quantities in the manufacture of pesticides, dyes and synthetic rubber. It is a hazardous substance and a prolonged exposure can cause kidney and liver failure, damages to the central nervous system and lung irritation. Nitrobenzene is not usually sold for commercial purposes.

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